Antibacterial efficacy of Jackfruit rag extract against clinically important pathogens and validation of its antimicrobial activity in Shigella dysenteriae infected Drosophila melanogaster infection model

Dhwani, N V; Raju, Gayathri ; Mathew, Sumi E; Baranwal, Gaurav ; Shivaram, Shivakumar B; Katiyar, Neeraj ; Pramanik, Nilkamal ; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth ; Shilpashree, H B; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kumar, Ritesh ; Shasany, Ajit K; Biswas, Raja ; Shankarappa, Sahadev A

Abstract

Exploration of alternative sources of antibacterial compounds is an important and possibly an effective solution to the current challenges in antimicrobial therapy. Plant derived wastes may offer one such alternative. Here, we investigated the antibacterial property of extract derived from a part of the Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) called ‘rag’, generally considered as fruit waste. Morpho-physical characterization of the Jackfruit rag extract (JFRE) was performed using Gas-chromatography, where peaks indicative of furfural; pentanoic acid; and hexadecanoic acid were observed. In vitro biocompatibility of JFRE was performed using the MTT assay, which showed comparable cellular viability between extract-treated and untreated mouse fibroblast cells. Agar well disc diffusion assay exhibited JFRE induced zones of inhibition for a wide variety of laboratory and clinical strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of electron microscope images of bacterial cells suggests that JFRE induces cell death by disintegration of the bacterial cell wall and precipitating intracytoplasmic clumping. The antibacterial activity of the JFREs was further validated in vivo using Shigella dysenteriae infected fly model, where JFRE pre-fed flies infected with S. dysenteriae had significantly reduced mortality compared to controls. JFRE demonstrates broad antibacterial property, both in vitro and in vivo, possibly by its activity on bacterial cell wall.

Keyword(s)

Artocarpus heterophyllus; Gut Microbes; Fruit Fly; Fruit waste

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